This illness proceeds absolutely imperceptibly. Thus erosion is one of the main reasons of cervical ectropion, and it can arise even at 16-year-old girls. Do not trust those who say that erosion can “resolve”. It needs to be treated. The most effective methods — frost and laser. Cervical ectropion is one of the most artful illnesses. First, during primary gynecologic survey it comes to light at 15-20 % of women. And secondly, it proceeds without pain, temperature rise and other obvious symptoms. As well as any extended, but not clear disease, erosion acquired a set of myths.
Myth 1. «Erosion is caused by infection». Not always. Uterine neck is a transition between uterus and vagina. So, it is a weak spot in a woman’s reproductive system. Traumas during delivery or sexual intercourse, inflammatory processes in vagina, hormonal reorganisations in a woman’s organism - all this can become a reason of cervical ectropion. But the most frequent reason of a pathology is, certainly, infections. Any, even insignificant and well treated infection of a vagina can be thrown on walls of uterine neck. And long infectious disease (clamydia, mycoplasmal, papilloma or herpetic infections) changes epithelial cell properties, increases speed of their division, what in its turn causes erosion.
Myth 2. «Pathology of uterine neck arises at 40-year-old women». Middle age of women subject to pathologies of uterine neck, really, was about 40 years earlier. But over the last 10 years erosion became younger. Today it can be met even in 16-year-old girls. First of all, it is connected with endocrine system frequent pathologies, which cause disbalance of female sexual hormones. And it provokes uncontrollable cell fission, growth of ferruterous structures, and, as consequence, occurrence of tumours.
Myth 3. «Erosion can disappear by itself». This biggest ignorance can cost a woman’s life. Annually cancer of uterine neck is registered more than in 600 thousand patients. And the principal cause of it is untreated erosion, which passes at first in displasia of uterine neck (a precancer condition), and in some years in a malignant pathology. So infringements of mucous membranes of uterine neck are, as a matter of fact, a delayed-action bomb. Therefore it is not necessary to risk a life, feeding doubtful hope that erosion “will resolve” by itself. Such cases, certainly, happen (for example, after delivery), but, unfortunately, occur seldom enough. Not to start this dangerous illness, it is necessary to go on a planned survey to a gynecologist at least once in half a year.
Myth 4. “Small erosion will never outgrow in a cancer tumour”. Sizes of erosion do not influence its «malignance». That is why it is impossible to measure character of epithelial cells damage by eye. So a competent doctor examining a patient with even the most insignificant erosion will necessarily conduct more detailed researches of damaged site. First of all he will take an analysis on presence of infections causing pathologies of uterine neck (bacteriological and cytologic research). The following stage of diagnostics - colposcopy. This research of uterine neck under a microscope allows to study epithelium structure in detail, find out its pathological changes even in those places, which neither a doctor, nor a patient did not suspect of. After that they use biopsy - a research, allowing to establish the definitive diagnosis and find out, what form of epitelium cells regeneration a doctor deals with (good-quality or malignant). If necessary, a doctor can ask a patient’s blood analysis showing level of ovary hormones and hypophysis. It will give the information on the reason of erosion occurrence, so more effective treatment will be prescribed.
Myth 5. «If there is an erosion, it is necessary to do cauterisation». Until recently cauterisation of damaged tissue by means of heats really was one of the most widespread methods of struggle against erosion. However, efficiency of this method reaches 50-65 % that is why so wide application of cauterisation has been connected more likely with rather low cost of equipment necessary for the procedure. So today gynecologists recognise that similar technique bears more harm, than advantage, after all tissues of uterine neck heal extremely slowly after cauterisation (2-3 months), and women who passed through this procedure suffered from uterine neck endometriosis, infringement of menstrual function quite often, and at the time of delivery uterine neck cannot open widely enough, because of hems formed after the procedure.
Myth 6. «Pathology of uterine neck can be cured by means of nonconventional methods of treatment». Only provided that degree of damages of tissues is insignificant: therapy by means of chemical coagulation (syringing by chemist’s preparations) and nonconventional methods of treatment (reflexotherapy, physiotherapy, herbal medicine) do not give high therapeutic effect. That is why they cannot cope with serious pathologies of uterine neck. Besides, chemical coagulation is counter-indicative to women, suffering from allergies, after all medicines can cause serious allergic reactions in them.
Myth 7. “The most effective method of treatment – cryolysis”. No, though cryolysis has rather high efficiency - 85-90 %. That is why last decade this method (freezing out damaged tissues in low temperatures) received rather a wide circulation among domestic gynecologists. However, it also has its weaknesses. For example, any, even the most skilled gynecologist, cannot dose out the depth of frost penetration freezing with a split-hair accuracy. That is why frequently a scab on uterine neck turns out friable, and (more than month) disturbs a woman who passed through this operation with plentiful sanious discharge. But even after their termination a woman is forbidden to bathe in pool, river or sea within first three months after operation. Vaginal sexual contacts are also tabooed. Besides, cryolysis cannot be applied to treatment of patients, not giving birth yet, and also in the presence of sharp infections and inflammatory diseases in a vagina and uterine neck. As to repeated application of similar surgery (if erosion has recrudesced) the percent of undesirable complications and by-effects increases twice.